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History Of The Popes #2
by Thornchild/Angels/Occult

Hello, here is your historic but not hysteric author THORNCHILD once again. I'll at once proceed in the description of the deeds and fates of the Popes.

Kornelius (251 - 253)

During the pursuation of the emperor Decius, no one was able to elect a new Pope. So for a long time of 18 months (this time gap is called a Sedisvacancy) the task stayed deserted. The problem was also caused by antipope Novatian. As so many of theSe men also him, being the leader of the religious group of the Catharians, was quite able and high motivated man.

Some special religious questions aren't successfully solved and answered because they turn to be far more complex and persistent. One of those was the subject of the atonement essence which I, as you rightly remember, mentioned in my first article. In the pontificate of Kornelius this question returns for the charismatic antipope who thought that the more strong and harsh practical sight of the atonement essence would be more a successful way to follow the orders the Bible taught. Pope Kornelius was far more mild in his theological acting. On a Roman synod in the year 251 Novatian and his fellowship was excommunicated.

In a letter he enlisted the clerical duties, he further widened the hierarchy of the church. During the pursuation of emperor Gallus the Pope was banned and died at the place of Hois Ban, Civitaveccia.

Lucius I. (June 253 - March 254)

He also was banned, but he could return soon to Rome after Decius had died. His short reign as Pope was filled with his brave standing up for his honest belief. Unfortunately, he couldn't be successful against the Novatians.

Stephan I. (May 254 - August 257)

Cyprian, the primate of Africa, was one of the most charismatic bishops of the church in the time of his life. He wanted to end the question of the atonement essence. The important part of this problem (such it had become during the last years) was the point of issue if former Christians that apostasized from the belief during the pursuations of the Christians were admitted to a new Christian Baptism. With that he caused a quarrel that was strengthened by the Pope who didn't accept his point of view. The North African and Oriental Congregations saw the first baptism (before the apostasizion) as an unvalid one so the new Christians had to receive a second, the new baptism. So they acted like their view.

Stephan I., as the advocate of the Roman principles (the return of the former heretics was done just with putting on the hand) gave these Congregations the order to follow the Roman principles.

Meanwhile the Roman empire was divided into the western and the eastern part.

Sixtus II. (August 257 - August 258)

The wiser one yields. This proverb was in fact right for this Pope, who settled the quarrel due to the baptism. Rome accepted the methods of Africa's and the Oriental Congregations and the peace did come back. Like Fabianus, this Pope was a very intelligent man, who was thought very highly of.

During the pursuation of the east Roman emperor Valerian he was beheaded, together with four deacons, during a divine service. He was a martyr.

Dionysius (July 259 - December 268)

During his pontificate the persuation of Valerian continued but fortunately not for a long time for Gallienus, his son ended it. In 260 Valerian became the prisoner of the Persian king. The bishop of Alexandria, his name also was Dionysius, involved the Pope into a quarrel, referring to the idea of the subordinatism. The idea followed the thesis that so called logos (a christological expression for the reason and the power of will of God) produced the spirit of Christ as a theologic act of procreation to have a son to be subordinated. The quarrel of the two Dionys, so it was called, ended with a reprimand against the bishop of Alexandria.

Felix I. (January 269 - December 274)

The Roman empire, once a power that did rule a great part of the whole world, was on the way to its final fall. The deeds of Felix I. are quite less known. He accepted Domnus of Antiochia as the Orphan of a deposed bishop. He surely wasn't a martyr. He was buried in the catacomb of Calixtus.

Eutychianus (January 275 - December 283)

In these years one Roman emperor followed the other. So this Pope had a quite peaceful time due to the church. On his order the burial chambers were extended. More unfortunately isn't well known.

Kajus (December 283 - April 296)

There is more or less very few known of this man. The pontificate stayed free of pursuation. It is said that the Pope was a relative of Diocletian, who became emperor in November 284. Maybe the Pope was able to make him friendly.

Marcellinus (June 296 - January 304)

The sources differ much in the description of the pontificate of this Pope. During his reign as Pope emperor Diocletian pursued the church. This period of time was probably the darkest that young church did see. Allegedly Marcellinus became weak and gave the holy books into the hands of the pursuers, further it is stated that he apostasized, but this in fact seems very untrue. Some Pope lists doesn't mention him. The grave in the priscillian catacombs was admired for a long time.

Marcellus I. (Spring 308 - January 309)

Such a long Sedisvacancy the Papacy did not see again as the sources tell. This had to do with the emperor Diocletian. But also inner church struggles were a reason for that. This Pope caused problems with his harsh behaviour against the former Christians that apostasized during the pursuation. With this the old quarrels due to the atonement began to threaten the church again.

As it is told in the 'Liber Pontificalis' Marcellus I. rearranged the inner order in the church. It isn't sure if he was banned by emperor Maxentius, reasoned by discords in the Roman Congregation. He, as the former Pope, was buried in the priscillian catacombs.

Eusebius (Apr. 309/310 - Aug. 309/310)

The quarrels that Marcellus I. had caused were continued. They reached their climax in a personal discussion struggle between the Pope and Heraclius. Emperor Maxentius banned both to Sicilia where the Pope died.

Miltiades (July 311 - January 314)

With the third dividing of the Roman empire in 305 the age of pursuation had found its end so far. Though not having been explained as an official aim, the new religion had brought the old Roman religion to its fall. During the pontificate of Miltiades the development of the Christian religion to an accepted religion found its first real climax. A proof of this is the edict of tolerance of emperor Constantin and his two companions in April 311. After emperor Maxentius was beaten in 312 the first edict of tolerance followed in 313.

The pontificate of Miltiades didn't stay out of problems though. In 313 the so called Donatians Quarrel that was provoked by the false doctrine that Donatus, the founder of the Donatists had developed, more or less a new kind of the former quarrels that already Stephan I. had his sorrows with. The quarrel based on internal irritations in the African Congregations, based on a misunderstanding of the theories of Tertullian and Cyprian. The Donatists believed that the religious value of the baptising clergymen determined the validity of the baptism. Due to their thought a bishop that apostised during a pursuation and was again baptised wasn't worthy in their eyes.

The Donatists stayed persistent on the binding answer to this question against the emperor and the Pope. A final answer wasn't given during this pontificate.

Silvester I. (January 314 - December 335)

The name of this man is highly bound to the so called Silvester legend which was invented to explain the so called Constantinian donation. As the legend tells Silvester freed emperor Constantin from the disease of leprosy. As a sign of his gratefullness the emperor donated a lot of wealthy items to the church. This interesting falsification was believed as to be true. The background of it is the fairytale of the alleged unnamable gratefullness of the emperor that made him so kind to donate the catholic church a lot of items and even the Lateran Palace to dwell in as a residence with also worldly powers. There does exist a real document, dated in the time of the middle years of the ninth century. On this the falsification of the so called pseudo-Isidorian decratales are founded, I'll explain them at the right time.

Now to the facts that have nothing to do with the legendary Pope Silvester I. The Pope only did get a written information about the Synod of Arles in 314 and he did send two presbytians to the council of Nicaea. Silvester was in the shadow of Constantin. He did let erect the basilica of St. Pete and the Lateran Basilica. There is not much more told about this Pope.

Marcus (January 336 - October 336)

He builded up a basilica. Further the Liber Pontificalis tells that this Pope gave the Pallium (the sign of grace for the catholic archbishops, a white bandage with six black crosses, worn over the shoulder) to the bishop of Ostia.

Julius I. (February 337 - April 352)

Meanwhile the last Popes had reigned a man called Arius had spread his false doctrine, the arianism. It said that Jesus was not like God in his character, also not the logos or any holy spirit but the most noble living being God ever created with the meaning to be a kind of powerful example. Arius was contested, bishop Alexander expelled Arius out of the church. The bishop was indeed wrong in his thought that the power of the Arianian idea would become weaker. Arius contacted the non-local episcopacy and wandered through the countries during the next years. The struggle against the false doctrine was a literally one till the council of Nicaea. Silvester I. had not remarked the special importance of this event.

The result of the council was that Arius and some of his fellows were banned. The doctrine of the arianism was imposed with the anathem of the catholic church (an anathem is a kind of religious ban edict). But this all didn't lead to a real solution, the arianism should stay mighty for some coming decades.

Julius I. was well occupied with his try to end the quarrels. Rightly he thought of the danger of a possible schism. So he called in some synods between 335 and 341 but these lead to no successful end.

On order of emperor Constans an empire synod was held in Sardica. Though some resolutions were said and done, this synod also was not blessed with positive results.

Julius I. today is seen as a holy man, living his papal life as a noble and religious man.

Liberius (May 352 - September 366)

Due to the arianism, it has to be added that the deacon Athanasius (who is also called the Great) was a mighty opponent of Arius. Liberius aided the struggle against Arius with all his power. But he couldn't hinder that Athanasius was judged on the synods of 353 and 355. Because Liberius stayed loyal to Athanasius he was banned to Aleppo. Meanwhile the emperor Constantius II. did let elect an antipope, Felix II. This man accepted the arianism.

The ban of Liberius lasted for the time of three years. In this time, so it is said, he began to become weak and broke with Athanasius. This, so other experts say, was the reason why he was allowed to come back to Rome. The antipope, who is presented as a hero in legends of the sixth century, meanwhile Liberius is stated there to be a traitor, had to go. So it did happen in 358.

Athanasius wasn't influenced by the ban ideologically. He called in a synod in 362 in Alexandria after the councils of 359 and 360 were held without the wished result to destroy the arianism in ideologic sight. The synod had the result that the Roman confession of faith (also called the Nicaean confession) was the pure and right one and the arianism was condemned.
You now think that was all? Oh no! The irritating situation had caused Pope Liberius to renew the ideological bands to Athanasius. Emperor Valens, the ruler of the East empire, pursued the non-Arians which caused them to stand behind Pope Liberius. Unfortunately, the death didn't let the Pope see the end of the most powerful false doctrine till this time.

With this Pope ends the group of Popes, who have worked out the development of the Papacy due to the power that a Pope could have. More than 300 years the way to the actual Pope has lasted. The men that had worked as the leading persons of the young church had one thing in common mostly: they weren't Popes in the meaning that Popes are seen from today's view. Most of these were bishops.

The next Pope, Damasus I. and his behaviour will explain why I stated that. Till the next issue I wish you a lot of fun with this edition of "Attitude" and I hope that you'll walk with me through the next decades of the historic Papacy.


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